Human resource flows in science and technology. Searching for excellence through talentDirector: Dr. Ana M. González Ramos
Funded by: Ministry of Science and Innovation
Description: The mobility of Human Resources in Science and Technology (HRST) has become one of the main elements of knowledge societies. On the one hand, science feeds into knowledge transfer; whilst on the other, scientists require a training which is increasingly demanding and involves mobility to prestigious research centres. The movement of people is greater given the intensification of economic activities and the improvement of communication and information technologies. Also science has become a global phenomenon that relies on the feedback of networks, foreign talent and knowledge from other research teams. The mobility of scientists plays a double role in strengthening professional careers and providing mechanisms of acquiring new talent in R&D and innovation systems.Although mobility and diffusion of knowledge has always been linked, the extension and complexity of the phenomenon has generated a significant change in the state of the question. Statistical data from the OECD and OIM (International Organisation for Migration) show its quantitative and qualitative importance which has implied the use of the term, “brain circulation”. Meanwhile, data indicates that each country and scientific culture (knowledge areas, public and private sector) have their own specific characteristics. Often this diversity is ignored and mobility of qualified personnel is treated as a homogeneous phenomenon. The ‘circulation’ of scientists however can only be counted if the scientists concerned return to their country of origin. Sometimes, however they do not return due to personal preferences, insufficiencies in the scientific structure of the country of origin or for other reasons. Even, if we consider only this type of leave- return mobility, the consequences for each actor, their professional trajectory and research centres is often extremely different.The objective of this project is to establish the impact of the inflows and outflows of highly skilled human resources on a) individual professional trajectories and b) on the science and technology systems of the sending and receiving countries. We maintain that both levels of analysis are interconnected – contributing firstly, to the construction of scientists identity and, secondly, the science that is produced at a national level. The attraction and retention of talent personified in the most valuable researchers is one of the most important elements that supports the R&D and innovation system in the knowledge economy.

Curricular effects of international mobility of university graduates in the ICT fieldDirector: Dra. Ana M. González Ramos
Funded by: Ministry of Education and Science
Description: The globalisation of science and the internationalisation of the labour market have led to increased mobility of highly qualified personnel. This project seeks to build on international theories and empirical data, proposing a pattern of migratory strategies of highly qualified personnel. The results indicate that highly qualified personnel require specific resources depending on each profile and mobility strategy.
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González, A. and Vergés, N. 2012. “International mobility of women in S&T careers: shaping plans for personal and professional purposes”. Gender, Place and Culture. DOI: 10.1080/0966369X.2012.701198
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González Ramos, A. M. 2011. “Atrayendo Talento: Estrategias de Movilidad de los Profesionales Altamente Cualificados en España”. Sociología y Tecnociencia, 1 (2): 72-87.
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González Ramos, A. M. and N. Vergés. 2011. “Moving for What? International Mobility Strategies of Women in ICT Careers” International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology3 (2): 501-516.

external image file_document_paper_red_g38444.pngGonzález, A. M. 2011. “Metodología para la construcción de un Sistema de Indicadores sobre el impacto de la movilidad del personal empleado en Ciencia y Tecnología”. En Mario Albornoz y Luis Plaza (Eds.) Agenda 2011. Temas de Indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnología, RICYT-OCTS.
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González, A. M., Vergés, N. y Castaño, C. 2011. “International Mobility of Women in ICT sectors: professional and personal goals, responses and outcomes”. 6th European Symposium on Gender & ICT - Feminist Interventions in Theories and Practices

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González, A.M.; Vergés, N. 2011. “New lives abroad: Mobility Strategies of ICT Professionals”. Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference ICT, Society and Human Beings 2011 e-Democracy, Equity and Social Justice. Roma. Pàg. 187 -191. ISBN: 978-972-8939-36-6.

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González, A. M. et al. 2009. “Can the diaspora contribute to the development of their home country?” en Fernández-Ardèvol, M., Ros, A. (eds.): Communication Technologies in Latin America and Africa: A multidisciplinary perspective, Barcelona: IN3: 343-366. 978-84-692-8402-5.

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Vergés, N; González, A. M. and Palmen, R. 2009. International Mobility of Women in ICT Careers. IADIS International Conference ICT 2009. pp. 237-241. ISSN: 1646-3692.

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González, A. M. 2009. "La carrera profesional de las investigadoras jóvenes: Un camino lleno de posibilidades". Revista CTS nº 14, vol. 4. ISSN: 1850-0013.

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  • Young highly skilled people are more professionally mobile than older ones. Both women and men are enjoying increasing professional mobility at the moment.
  • In the past, this mobility among Spanish science professionals was connected to the aim to modernise the Spanish science and technology (S&T) system. Today, it is more characteristic of the wider internationalisation of science.
  • 42.1% of the population with doctoral degrees work in university positions, while 17.4% work in hospitals and health institutes, 9% are researchers in research institutes, and 8% are teachers in secondary schools and other educational institutions.
  • International mobility does not appear to have improved job opportunities or salaries in Spanish universities.
  • Spanish PhDs emigrate mainly to the United States (22.6%), the United Kingdom (14.2%), France (11.5%) and Germany (8.6%).
  • Attracting foreign science talent into Spain is still problematic; foreign professionals still make up only 3.4% of all doctoral graduates in the Spanish S&T system. They mainly come from Argentina, Venezuela and France.
  • Only 15.1% of PhDs work in the private sector. Spanish enterprises seem to under-utilise the potential offered by qualified scientists, and research and development activities suffer accordingly.
  • Although professional considerations drive people's moves to work abroad, their personal lives influence the strategies they take in making these moves, and the nature and timing of their overseas work. Family is a key consideration in their planning.
  • Not all women are trailing spouses, and many lead the mobility arrangements of the whole family, particularly where they have the stronger career trajectory within the couple.
  • However, most women have to balance professional and family demands. Women generally plan their lives around key milestones in their work and in the lives of family members. Supportive partners who share responsibility for domestic and caring work greatly assist these women's ability to manage work-family balance.
  • International mobility has other personal implications for scientists and technologists: their national, cultural and personal identities often undergo a transformation in the course of working abroad.
  • Measures designed to support professionals moving abroad should recognise that international mobility affects not only the mobile professional but their entire family, including professional partners and children.

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